The Eye Beguiled


Further reading on impossible objects and ambiguous figures:

B. d'Amore, F. Grignani, Pitture, Sperimentali e Graphic Design, Commune di Reggio Emilia, 1979

M. Anno, Strange Pictures, Tokyo: Fukuikan Shoten, 1968; French edition: Jeux de constructions, L'école des loisirs, Paris, 1970

M. Anno, The Unique World of Mitsumasa Anno: Selected Illustrations I969-I977, Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo, 1977

F. Attneave, "Multistability in perception", Scientific American, vol. 225, no. 6, 1971, pp. 62-71 and December 1971, pp. 91-99

T.O. Binford, "Inferring surfaces from images", Artifcial Intelligence, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 205-244

I. Chakravarty, "A generalized line and junction labeling scheme with applications to scene analysis", IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. PAMI-I, no. 2, 1979, pp. 202-205

Challenge to Geometry - Oscar Reutersvärd, Zenon Kulpa - Impossible figures, Art Museum of Lodz, Lodz 1984, exhibition catalogue

M.B. Clowes, "On seeing things", Artificial Intelligence, Vol.2, no. 3, 1971, pp. 79 -116

M.B. Clowes, "Scene analysis and picture grammars", in: F. Nake and A. Rosenfeld, eds., Graphic Languages (Proc. IFIP Working Conf on Graphic Languages, Vancouver, 1972), Amsterdam 1972, pp. 70-82; also in: Machine Perception of Patterns and Pictures, Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1972, pp. 243-256

T.M. Cowan, "The theory of braids and the analysis of impossible figures", Journal of Mathematical Psychology, vol. 11, no. 3, 1974, pp. 190-212

T.M. Cowan, "Supplementary report: braids, side segments, and impossible figures", Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1977, 16, pp. 254-260

T.M. Cowan, "Organizing the properties of impossible figures", Perception, vol. 6, no. 1, 1977, pp. 41-56

T.M. Cowan and R. Pringle, "An investigation of the cues responsible for figure impossibility", Journal of Experimental Psychology; Human perception and performance, Vol. 4, no. 1, 1978, pp. 112-120

K. Critchlow, Order in Space, The Viking Press Inc., New York, 1970

S.W. Draper, "The Penrose triangle and a family of related figures", Perception, Vol. 7, 1978, pp. 283-296

S.W. Draper, "The use of gradient and dual space in line drawing interpretation", Artificial Intelligence, Vo1. 17, no. 1, 1981, pp. 461-508

B. Ernst, The Magic Mirror of M. C. Escher, Tarquin Publications, Norfolk, 1985

B. Ernst, Adventures with Impossible Figures, Tarquin Publications, Norfolk, 1986

G. Falk, "Interpretation of imperfect line-data as a 3-D scene", Artificial Intelligence, vol. 3, no. 2, 1972, pp. 101-144

C. French, "Computer art - a load of quasi-spherical objects?" PAGE (Computer Arts Society quarterly), no. 44, 1980, pp. 1-12

M. Gardner, "Of optical illusions from figures that are undecidable to hot dogs that float", Scientific American, 222, 1970, pp. 124-127

R.L. Gregory, "Visual Illusions", Scientific American, November 1968, pp. 48-58

R.L. Gregory, "The confounded eye", in: R.L. Gregory and E.H. Gombiich, eds., Illusion in Nature and Art, Duckworth, London/Scribners, New York, 1973, pp. 49-95

J. Guiraud and P. Lison, Systematique des figures reversibles, Gestetner, Brussels, 1976

A. Guzman, Computer recognition of three-dimensional objects in a visual scene, MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Cambridge (MA), 1968

A. Guzman, "Decomposition of a visual scene into three-dimensional bodies", AFIPS Proc. of FJCC , vol. 33, Thompson Book, New York, 1968, pp. 291-304; also in: A. Gresselli (ed.), Automatic interpretation and classification of images, Academic Press, New York, 1969, pp. 243-276

W.F. Harris, "Perceptual singularities in impossible pictures represent screw dislocations", South African Journal of Science, 1973, 69, pp. 10-13

J. Hochberg and V. Brooks, "The psychophysics of form: reversible - perspective drawings of spatial objects", American Journal of Psychology, vol. 73, 1960, pp. 227-254

D.A. Huffman, "Impossible objects as nonsense sentences", in: B. Melzer and D. Michie (eds.), Machine Intelligence 6, Edinburgh University Press, 1971, pp. 295-323

D.A. Huffman, "A duality concept for the analysis of polyhedral scenes" in: E.W. Elcock and D. Michie (eds.), Machine Intelligence 8, Ellis Horwood, ChiChester/Halsted, New York, 1977, pp. 475-492

D.A. Huffman, "Realizable configurations of lines in pictures of polyhedra", in: E.W. Elcock and D. Michie, eds., Machine Intelligence 8, Ellis Horwood, Chichester/Halsted, New York, 1977, pp. 493-509

D.A. Huffman, "Surface curvature and applications of the dual representation", in: A.R. Hanson and E.M. Riseman (eds.), Computer Vision Systems, Academic, New York, 1978, pp. 213-222

W.G. Hyzer, "Plenty of chances to go astray in photographic interpretation", Photo Methods for Industry, January 1970, pp. 20-24

T. Kanade, "A theory of Origami world", Artificial Intelligence, vol. 13, no. 3, 1980, pp. 279-311

T. Kanade, "Recovery of the three-dimensional shape of an object from a single View", Artificial Intelligence, vol. 17, no. 1, 1981, pp. 409-460

Z. Kulpa, "Oscar Reutersvärd's exploration of impossible lands", in 150 Omöjliga figurer- Oscar Reutersvärd, Malmö Museum, Malmo, 1981, exhibition catalogue

Z. Kulpa, "Are impossible figures possible?", Signal Processing, Vol. 5, no. 3, 1983, pp. 201-220

Z. Kulpa, "Putting order in the impossible", in: E. Térouanne (ed.), Proc. 16th Meeting of the European Mathematical Psychology Group, (Montpellier, 8-1] Sept. 1985), Université Paul Valéry, Montpellier, 1985, pp. 127-144

A.K. Mackworth, "Interpreting pictures of polyhedral scenes", Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 4, 1973, pp. 121-137, Vol. 4, 1977, pp. 54-86

A.K. Mackworth, "Model-driven interpretation in intelligent Vision systems", Perception, Vol. 5, 1976, pp. 349-370

A.K. Mackworth, "How to see a simple world: an exegesis of some computer programs for scene analysis", in: E.W. Elcock and D. Michie (eds.), Machine Intelligence 8, Ellis Horwood, Chichester/Halsted, New York, 1977, pp. 510-537

R. Nevatia, Machine Perception, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1982

B. Raphael, The thinking computer - Mind inside matter, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1976

O. Reutersväd, Omöjliga figurer, Bokforlaget Doxa AB, Bodafors, 1982; Dutch edition: Onmogelijke figuren, Meulenhoff/Landshoff, Amsterdam 1983

L.G. Roberts, "Machine perception of three-dimensionalsolids", in: J.T. Tippet et al. (eds.), Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, MIT Press, Cambridge (MA), 1965, pp. 159-197

J.O. Robinson and J.A. Wilson, "The impossible Colonnade and other Variations of a well-known figure", British Journal of Psychology, VOl. 64, no. 3, 1973, pp. 363-365

P.V. Sankar, "A vertex coding scheme for interpreting ambiguous trihedral solids", Computer Graphics and Image Processing, Vol. 6, 1977, pp. 61-89

R. Shapira and H. Freeman, "A cyclic-order property of bodies with three-face Vertices", IEEE Trans. on Computers, vol. C-26, no. 10, 1977, pp. 1035-1039

K. Sugihara, "Dictionary-guided scene analysis based on depth information", in: Report on Pattern Information Processing Systems No. 13, Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tokyo, 1977

K. Sugihara, "Picture language for skeletal polyhedra", Computer Graphics and Image Processing, Vol. 8, 1978, pp. 382-405

K. Sugihara, "Studies on mathematical structures of line drawings of polyhedra and their applications to scene analysis", Res. Electrotech. Lab., no. 800, 1979

K. Sugihara, "Classification of impossible objects", Perception, Vo1. 11, 1982, pp. 65-74

K. Sugihara, "Mathematical structures of line drawings of polyhedrons - toward man-machine communication by means of line drawings", IEEE Trans. On Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. PAMI-4, no. 5, 1982, pp. 458-469

K. Sugihara, An algebraic approach to shape-from-image problems, Res. Note RNS 83-01, Dept. of Information Science, Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, 1983

E. Térouanne, "Impossible figures and interpretations of polyhedral figures", Journal of Mathematical Psychology, vol. 27, 1983, pp. 370-405

E. Térouanne, "On a class of 'impossible' figures: a new language for a new analysis", Journal of Mathematical Psychology, vol. 22, no. 1, 1983, pp. 24-47

E.B. Thro, "Distinguishing two classes of impossible objects", Perception, vol. 12, no. 6, 1983, pp. 733-751

V. Vasarely and M. Joray, Vasarely, Editions du Griffon, 1971

D. Waltz, "Understanding line drawings of scenes with shadows", in: P. H. Winston (ed.), The Psychology of Computer Vision, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975, pp. 19-91

W. Whiteley, "Realizability of polyhedra", in: Structural Topology, vol. 1, University of Montreal Press, Montreal, 1979, pp. 46-58

P.H. Winston (ed.), The Psychology of Computer Vision, McGraw-Hill, New York 1975

A.W. Young and JB. Deregowski, "Learning to see impossible", Perception, vol. 10, 1981, pp. 91-105

J.M. Yturralde, "Ambiguous structures", in: D.W. Brisson (ed.), Hypergraphics - Visualizing Complex Relationships in Art, Science and Technology, Westview Press, Boulder (CO), 1978, pp. 177-185